Drilling Machine: Defination Parts Types And Operation

What is A Drilling Machine - Drilling machine definition

A drilling machine is used to drill the hole on the various workpieces including wood, metal, and ceramic using a rotary tool called drill bits. These are available in various types and sizes and can be used in a diverse range of workplaces to bore holes of precise diameter and depth. Long ago, Egyptians invented the bow drill to perform the drilling operations. However, with the advent of technological advancements modern drilling machines have been manufactured to perform the various operations of drilling within a shorter period.

What is Drilling Machine and operation and types of Drilling Machine

To understand more about the drilling machine, let's delve deeper into the types, parts, and operation of the drilling machine.

Parts of Drilling Machine

Base -It is the most important part of the machine as it withholds the other major components of the machine. It is made of cast iron and has impeccable comprehensive strength and excellent good wear resistance. For smaller machines, these bases can be either fixed to the workshop floor or can be mounted on the work table. Few of the bases have the slots to accommodate the large workpieces that can't be fixed on the work table.

Chunk - The chunk that is present at the lower end of the spindle holds the tool tightly from slipping away. It is made of alloy steel and has three main adjustable jaws to handle the drill bits of varied diameters.

Electric Motor - The electric motor is used to regulate the spindle through the belts or pulleys or by using the gearbox. It can be attached to the bottom of the base or at the top of the column. It plays a crucial role in drilling operations by supplying the power to drive the spindle, which in turn rotates the drill bit.

Column - The column provides support and rigidity to the drilling machine by connecting the base to the table and head.

Table - It is a flat surface that is mounted on the base and can be adjusted at varied heights to accommodate the various drilling requirements. It is available in rectangular and circular forms and also has different t-slots to allow workpiece clamping.

Head - The head consists of a feed mechanism, drill chunk, spindle, and the other varied components that are responsible for the proper functioning of the drilling process.

Spindle - It joins the electric motor to the chunk and has a minimum rotational eccentricity to make sure that the holes that are drilled are concentric.

There are other minor components of drilling machines such as Sleeves, Sockets, Drill drifts, Hand Wheels, Feed Mechanisms, and many more. All these components play a crucial role in the proper functioning of the drilling machine.

Operation of Drilling Machine (drilling machine operations) and working of drilling machine :

Drilling machine operation : The drilling bit works by allowing the drill bit to make holes on various materials such as wood, plastic, or metal. The spindle is connected to the electric motor with the help of the belt and the pulley. When the power is on, the electric motor starts rotating, which then rotates the spindle that is connected through the help of a belt and pulley. When the spindle rotates, it causes the drill bit attached to it to rotate as well. The drill bit is then brought close to the workpiece and it begins to make the hole on the workpiece. The operator can adjust the speed and feed rate of the drill bit to make holes of varied diameters and depths. After the hole is made, the electric motor is turned off.

Types of Drilling Machines - Drilling Machine types

The major types of drilling machines are as follows:

Portable drilling machines - These are used to make holes of small diameter on a workpiece. They are easy to carry from one location to another and can be used by hand to puncture holes in the wall. They are mainly used to perform light-duty tasks.

Vertical drilling machines - This device is widely used to make large-sized holes where the electricity is not feasible such as fabrication pillars and railway lines.

Sensitive drilling machine - These machines are used to make holes of small diameter in low volumes. It needs to be operated by a skilled professional and the amount of pressure applied to the drilling machine to finish the task is usually controlled by the operator.

Radial drilling machine - Such a device is suitable for making large to medium-sized holes on large workpieces. They have a movable arm that can be adjusted to varied positions, making it much easier to puncture the holes at varied positions.

Deep holes drilling machine - This machine is mainly used for drilling deep holes with precision and accuracy. They are usually assembled horizontally to make sure that the workpiece can easily lay on their slides. These are available in two types: vertical and horizontal.

Upright drilling machine - The device has a power feed that helps in pushing the tool directly to the workpiece. Heavy-duty tasks can be easily performed by using these machines. They are available in two types namely round and column type.

Gang drilling machine - These machines have an independent column and each column has its own drive and spindle which are attached to the same base. Moreover, drilling and tapping can be done at the same time on the same base with the help of these machines.

Automatic drilling machine – Also known as CNC (Computer Numeric Control) machines,they are operated with the help of a computer. The computer reads the G-code (the instructions that the machine can understand) and then performs drilling operations automatically, making it an efficient way to puncture the holes on a workpiece.

Multiple spindle drilling machine - The device has multiple spindles for puncturing several holes simultaneously on a single workpiece. They are mainly used in the mass production environment where the requirement of drilling several holes is essential.

These are the parts of drilling machine,There are other drilling machines that are used extensively in varied workplaces to perform drilling operations namely Pillar Drill, Magnetic Drills, Gun Drills, Horizontal Boring Machines, Micro Drill Presses, turret drilling machines, Pneumatic Drilling Machine, and much more.

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